Πέμπτη, 28 Οκτωβρίου 2010

Όλα όσα είπε ο Dallam για τη Ζάκυνθο

Το Hector, με το οποίο ήρθε, έφυγε και ξανάφυγε ο Dallam. Ήταν ένα ισχυρότατο για την εποχή του πλοίο των 300 τόνων. Είχε πλήρωμα 108 ανδρών και 27 κανόνια.


Λυπάμαι αλλά δεν έχω χρόνο να το μεταφράσω ολόκληρο. Αν όμως κάποιος πείσμων και γενναιόφρων αψηφήσει τα πεπαλαιωμένα Αγγλικά και την τρομερή ανορθογραφία του Dallam θα προσπαθήσω να βοηθήσω σε περίπτωση που κολλήσει κάπου.

At this porte of Saffranee (1) thare be tow
tounes, and a moste singuler good harber. Neare unto it is
the iland caled Sante, but rether Zante. The same Daye we
came to an anker before the greate toune of that ilande, the
which theye Do call Zante, by the name of the ilande ;
thar is also a good harbur. The toune or Cittie of Zante
is Cittiwated cloce to the seae, and is a good myle in
lengthe ; behinde it, upon a verrie hie and stepie hill, Dothe
stande a large platforme of a castell, whearin Dothe live the
governer of that castell and towne ; he is caled the Providore. (2)
Within the wales of this castell is diverse other
dwelers, and many housis ; within that place the Providore

(1) Saffranee = Sovrano, or Windward, the modern Bay of Argostoli
in Cephalonia.

(2) Each of the Ionian Islands was governed by a Proveditore from
Venice until the downfall of the Republic in 1797.


dothe tow dayes in the weeke hould a courte, and heare
diverse causes, as well of the Grekes as of the Venition
and Italians ; for this ilande is under the Ducke of Venis,
but he houldes it under the greate Turke, and Dothe
paye tribute yearlye or quarterly for it. The greateste
parte of the people in this ilande be Greekes, and theye
doo labur harde in planting and triminge the corron (currant)
gardins, ollive gardins, and vinyards. Hear growethe
verrie litle corne, but from hence comethe the moste of
our Corrance and beste ayle (oil) ; thar is also good
wyne. There provition of breade, beefe, gotese, shepe, and
swyne and pullin (fowls), they have it from Castle Turne (1)
in Morea, the which place is neare the playnes of Arcadia,
whear plentie of catle ar. The Providore, and those which
ar nexte unto him in office, whome they do cale sinyors of
healthe, would not suffer us to com on shore because we
came from Argeare, whear Turks do live, and we broughte
from thence som Turkes in our shipp ; yeate, at the End of
six dayes, we had proticke, (2) which is, Leve to com a shore.
The order thar is, that all Those which doo com out of any
parte of Turkie, havinge not a letter of healthe from som
Venition or Ittalion, muste remayne ether a borde the ship,
or in the prison which they do cale the lazerett, for ten
Dayes; yf in the meane time any man hapene to be sicke,
they muste all reste thare for ten dayes more, and so still
for ten Dayes untill the have there healthe.
Whyleste we laye thus for sixe dayes upon the seae
before the towne, I touke greate notis of a little mountayne,
the which, as I thought, did ly close to the seae, and
semed to be a verrie pleasante place to take a vew of the
whole iland and the seae before it. It showed to be verrie
greene and playen ground on the tope of it, and a whyte
thinge lyke a rocke in the mydle tharof I touke suche

(1) Castel Tornese. (2) Pratique.



pleasur in behouldinge this hill that I made a kinde of vow
or promise to my selfe that assowne as I sett foute on
shore I would nether eate nor Drinke untill I had bene on
the tope tharof ; and in the meane time did labur with tow
of my companyons, and perswaded them to beare me company.
One of there names was Myghell Watson, my
joyner ; the other's name Edward Hale, a Cotchman. The
day beinge come that we should go a shore, I chalinged
my associates with there promise, and gott there good wils
to go with me before we wente into the towne. This hill is
called by the Greekes Scopo {i.e., outlook). It is from the
town more than a myle, but I gave our sayleres somthinge to
carrie us in the coke boote, as we thoughte to the foute of
the hill ; but when we weare sett a shore we found it to be
almoste tow myles unto it. When we cam to the foute of
it, by greate fortune we hapened on the ryghte waye, the
which was verrie narrow and crouked. It was arlye in the
morninge, and we weare toulde, 2 or 3 dayes before, that no
man muste carrie any weapern with him when he wente
a shore, and tharfore we wente only with cudgels in our
handes. So, assendinge the hill aboute halfe a myle, and
loukinge up, we sawe upon a storie of the hill above us a
man goinge with a greate staffe on his shoulder, havinge a
clubed end, and on his heade a cape which seemed to hus
to have five horns standinge outryghte, and a greate heard
of gootes and shepe folloed him.
My frende Myghell Watson, when he saw this, he
seemed to be verrie fearfull, and would have perswaded us
to go no farther, tellinge us that surly those that did inhahite
thare weare savidge men, and myghte easalye wronge
us, we hauinge no sordes or dageres, nether any more
Company ; but I tould him that yf thei weare divers, I
would, with Godes help, be as good as my worde. So, with
muche adow, we gott him to go to that storie wheare we
sawe the man with his club ; and than we saw that that
man was a heardman. Yeate, for all this, Myghell Watson
swore that he would goo no farther, com of it what would.
Edward Hale sayd somthinge fayntly that he would not
leave me, but se the end. So we tow traveled forwarde,
and when we cam somthinge neare the topp, we saw tow
horsis grasinge, with packe sadls on ther backes, and one
man cominge downe the hill towardes us, having nothinge
in his handes. Cothe I to my fellow: Nede, we shall see
by this man what people they be that inhabit heare.
When this man came unto us he lay his hand upon his
breste, and boued his head and bodye with smylinge countinance,
makinge us a sine to go up still. Yeat than Ned
Hall began to diswade me from goinge any further ; but I
tould him it would not stand with my othe to go backe
untill I had bene as farr as I could go. Cominge to the
top thare was a prittie fair grene, and on one sid of it a
whyte house bulte of lyme, and some square, the whyche
had bene the house of an ancoriste, who, as I harde after
wardes, Died but a litle before our cominge thether, and
that she had lived five hundrethe years. Ryghte before us,
on the farther side of the greene, I saw a house of som 20
pacis longe, and waled aboute one yarde hie, and than
opene to the eaves, which was aboute a yarde more. And
I se a man on the inside reatche oute a coper kettell to one
that stood with oute the wale. Than saide I to Ned Hale:
I will go to yender house and gitt som drinke, for I have
greate neede. The wether was verrie hote, and I was
fastinge. But Ned Hale tould me that I had no reason to
drinke at there handes, nether to go any nearer them.
Yeate I wente bouldly to the sid of the house, whear I
saw another man drinke, and made a sine to him within
that I woulde drinke. Than he touke up the same ketle
which had water in it, and offer it me to drinke. And
when I did put out my hande to take it, he would
not give it me, but sett it further of, and than cam
near the wale againe, and llfte up a carpit which lay
on the ground, and thar was six bottels full of verrie good
wyne, and a faire silver cupe, and he filed that silver boule
full of a redeishe wyne, which they do cale Rebola, and he
gave it me to drinke ; and when I had it in my hande
I caled to my frende Nede Hale, who stood a far of, for he
was a fraide to com neare. Hear, Nede, cothe I, a carrouse
to all our frendes in Inglande. I pray you, cothe he, take
heede what you dow. Will you take what drinke they
give you ? Yeae, truly, cothe I ; for it is better than
I have as yeat disarved of When I had give God thankes
for it, I drank it of, and it was the beste that ever
I dranke. Than he filled me the same boule with whyte
Rebola, the which was more pleasante than the other.
When I had muche comended the wyne, and tould Ned
Hale that he was a foule to refuse suche a cup of wyne,
than he come neare the house, and desiered to have som
water ; so he had the kettle to drinke in. When this was
all done, I was so well pleasede with this entertaynmente,
that I knew not how to thanke this man. I had no mony
aboute me but one halfe Dolor of Spanyshe mony, and
that mony is best accepted of in that countrie. I offered
to give that peece of silver to this man, but he would not
by any means take it. Than I remembered that I had tow
severall (Seville ?) knyfes in my pocket. I toke one of them
and gave it him, and the blad gilded and graven. When
he had taken it oute of the sheathe and louked upon it, he
caled with a loude voyce : Sisto, Sisto ! Than another man
Came runninge, unto whom he showed but only the hafte
of it, and than they began to wrastell for the knife ; but
he that I gave it unto kepte it, and leape ower the wale to
the side whear I was, and, bowinge him selfe unto me, he
toke me by the hande, and led me aboute by the ende of
that house, and so into a litle cloyster, throughe the
whyche we passed into a Chappell, whear we found a preste
at mass and wex candls burninge. He pute me into
a pue, whear I satt and saw the behaveour of the people,
for thare weare about 20 men, but not a woman emongste
them ; for the wemen weare in a lower chapell by them
selves, (1) yeate myghte they heare and se. Ned Hale cam
after, but hauinge loste sighte of me, at his cominge into
the chappell he kneled Downe neare unto the wemen, but
saw them not ; but they saw him, and wondred at his
behaveour ; for, after I had kneeled Downe, I stode up in
my pue to louk for him, and than I saw tow wemen put
oute there heades and laughed at him – as indeed they
myghte, for he behaved him selfe verrie foolishly. Nether
he nor I had ever sene any parte of a mass before, nether
weare we thinge the wyser for that. This chapell was verrie
curiusly paynted and garnished round aboute, as before
that time I had never seene the lyke. Sarvis beinge
ended, we Departed out of the chapell ; but presently one
cam after us, who did seme verrie kindly to intreat me to
goo backe againe, and he leed us throughe the chappell
into the cloyster, wheare we found standing eyghte verrie
fayre wemen, and rychly apparled, som in reed satten, som
whyte, and som in watchell Damaske, (2) there heads verrie
finly attiered, cheanes of pearle and juels in there eares,
7 of them verrie yonge wemen, the eighte was Anchante
(ancient), and all in blacke. I thoughte they hade bene
nones, but presently after I kenewe they wear not. Than
weare we brought into that house wheare before I had
dranke. Clothe beinge layde, we weare requested to sitt
downe, and sarved with good breade and verrie good
wyne and egges, the shels of them collored lyke a
damaske Rose, (3) and these mad lyke an alla compana
{alla campagna) (4) Route, for they keep it in the earthe,


(1) The γυναικείον, or woman's quarter in a Greek church.

(2) Watchet silk, so called from the colour of the dye of woad, Saxon
Wadchet.
" Who like a mighty king doth cast his Watchet robe
Far wider than the land, quite round the globe."
(Drayton, Bk. xx, p. 1044.)

(3) Easter eggs.

(4) Eggs for a country festivity.



because nothinge will thar take salte. My fellow, Need
Hale, would nether eate nor drinke anythinge but water,
yeat I did eate one egge, bread and chese, and I dranke
tow boules of wyne. Whylste we satt there, the Jentelwemen
came in, and thre of them came verrie neare
us, and louked earnestly upon us. I offered one of them
the cup to drinke, but she would not. Than I offered to
give him that tended upon us my halfe Dollor, but he
would not take any monye. These wemen standing all to
gether before us, I thoughte they had bene Dwelleres
there, because no mony would be taken. I presented my
other knyfe, of 2s. price, unto the ould Jentlewoman, the
which she was unwilling to take, but at laste she tooke it,
and than they all flocked together, and, as it semed to me,
they wondered muche at it. When thei had well louked
upon it, they came altogether towardes me and bowed
there bodies, to show ther thankfulnes. So Ned Hale and
I Touke our leves and wente awaye verrie merrily ; but
when we came to the place wheare we lefte our fainteharted
frend Myghell Watson, who all this whyle has
layen in a bushe, when we had tould him the wonderes
that we had sene, and of our kinde entertainmente, he
would not beleve us, for he was a shamed, and desiered us
to make haste to the towne that he myghte git som vittals ;
but we mad the less haste for that, and wente to se another
monestarie. Near unto the place upon this mountaine
growed many sweete floweres, in stead of heathe, time, and
other good earbes, and fine springes of watere. Cominge
to the towne of Zante, we Inquiered out the house wheare
our marchants and other passingeres weare, which was at
the sine of the Whyte Horse ; but Myghell Watson, for
shame, would not go in with us. When our martchantes
saw us, they began to be verrie angrie, sayinge that they
had soughte alaboute, and thoughte that we had bene
drowned, or com to som evell fortune ; but I bid them
hould ther peace, and lett me tell them my adventurs.
When I had toulde them all the storie, they wondered at
my bouldnes, and some Grekes that weare thare sayde
that they never hard that any Inglishe man was ever thare
before. It was than aboute 12 of the clocke, and nyne
of these Jentlmen would needes go presently thether to se
That which I had done, and bcause I would not go againe,
beinge wearie, for it was 4 myles thether, they hiered a gide,
and yeate, when they came to the mountaine, they myste
of the Ryghte way, and did climbe upon the Rockes, so
that som of them gott fales and broke there shins ; but at
laste they got thether, and the waye for them by me
beinge preparede, thei weare bid verrie welcom ; but there
gide hade Instrucktede them with that which I never thought
on, the which was, that at ther firste cominge they should
go Into the chappell, and thar offer som mony, as litle as
they would, and than theye should have all kinde entertainmente.
So, verrie late in the evininge, they Returned
safly againe, and gave me thankes for that which theye
had sene.
The 30th day I wente with 3 more, havinge a Greke to
show us the way into the Castle.

MAYE

The firste day of maye we saw there greatest traverses (1)
or sportes that they have in all the yeare, for that day
dothe meete at the toune of Zante all the able men of the
Greeks with there best horsis and artillerie, which is nothinge
but staves to Rvne at the Ringe, or at quintan. (2) They
borroed our five trompateres to sounde whe[n] they Run at

1 " Many shiftes and subtle traverses were overwrought by this
occasion." {Proceedings against Garnet^ 1606.)

2 A game with a beam and sack of sand.



Ringe the prizis ; the maner of it was so simple, that it
is not worthe keping in memorye. In the fore noune they
Run Quintan for a prize, the after noone at Ringe.
The second of Maye we departed from Zante.
The Turkes which weare passingeres in our shipp, and
came with us from Argeare in Barbaria, and were to goo
wythe us to Scandarowne, did somwate hasten us on of
our voyege, and, the wynd beinge fayer, we sett sayle the
second of Maye. The sam daye we sailed verrie neare an
Ilande called Travallie, (1) in the which we did se a Castle,
and in that Castell, or in som monestarie near unto it, thar
be alwayes Thirtie fryeres, and no wemen in that Ilande,
nether any more housis : it is low ground and levell, and
litle above one myle in lengthe.

(1) Probably the Strophades, the largest of which is still called
Convent Island, and has a convent on it of monks only.




At nyghte we came to a Castell, caled Castell Turneaes, (2)
the which dothe stand upon a verrie hie hill, posseste with
a garreson of Turkes, and is 3 myles from the seae. It is
a Castele that may be kepte with a verrie few men. The
waye to it is so lade (3) that ordenance cannot be broughte
anythinge near it.
On St. Stevn's Day we did thinke to have croste a parte
of the sea to the iland Zante, but the wynde was so hie
that we could not.
On St. John's Day, the wynde beinge somwhat abatted,
we carried our supports (4) and other Lugedge to the seasid,
wheare we weare in hoope to find som boats. Cominge
thether, we founde a great markett of swyne and other
cattell, and so thar is everie day, beinge faire weather. The
iland Zante hathe all theire provition of vittell from thence.
From this place it is but 12 or 18 myles by sea, yeate we
had muche adow to hier a hogge boate to carrie us to
Zante. For our passage and carriege of our stufe we payed
seven Chickens (sequins), or 7 pecis of gould which weare
nyne shillinges a peece.
Heare, at the sea sid, we parted from our drugaman,
or the Turke that was our gidd from Constantinople.
Thoughe he was a Turke, his righte name was Finche,
borne at Chorlaye in Longcashier.

(2) Castel Tornese.
(3) Ugly, Fr. laide. (4) Supportes, i.e., provisions.


Beinge come to Zante, we could not be permited to goe
a shore, because the governers of the toune did understand
that we came from Constantinople, or oute of Turkie.
It (is) ther Custom to deale so with all straingers that come
out of Turkie, if they have not a letter of health from some
Venitian or Ittalian.
So by the judgimente of the Provodore and the tow
Sinyors of Healthe, we wear comited to the lazaretto, which
is a prison for all suche travelers, and thare to remaine for
10 dayes ; and if, at the ende of 10 dais, any man be
founde sicke when the Sinyors of Healthe com to examon
and se them, than they muste remaine thare for 10 daies
more.


JENNARIE

By suche meanes as our martchantes who ar facktors
thare did use, we had poticke (pratique) the 6 of Jenuarie,
but at our firste cominge we weare in doubte to have laine
thare longer in this prison, but we hade a greate favor
showede us, for we weare not put into the ordenarie preson,
but into a new house wheare never any bodie had dwelte,
and it was cloce to the seae. Also the water men which
brought us from Cstell Turneas (1) was commited with us,
because they broughte us in theire boote ; and we weare
constrained to finde them vittals for 7 dayes ; for than the
Sinyors of Healthe came unto us to se if any man weare

(1)  Castel Tornese.

sicke. Than Mr. Paule Finder desiered that they would
releace the water men, and ease us of that charge. So
theye weare contented that the water men should have proticke,
or libertie, if theye would leape out at a window into
the sea, and washe them selues over heade with theyer
clothis on ; the which theye weare verrie lothe to dow, but
Mr. Connisbye drew his simmeterie, and swore a greate
othe that if they would not leape out quickly he would cut
of theier legges, and made them perforce leap oute ; and so
we weare rid of them.
Many thinges which hapened in the time of our impresoment,
for wante of time I doo omit.


FEBRUARIE

We stayed in the iland of Zante fortie and 6 dayes, ever
expectinge som ship to com in thare that would Carrie us
to Venis, or els for Inglande, but the firste that came war
the Heckter, in the which I wente out of Inglande ; and we
did thinke that she by that time had bene in Inglande.
When I saw her I was somwhat sorie, for I had a great
desier to have gone to Venis ; but yeat I was glad againe,
because I knew that in her was a sur passidge, and
emongste men that did know me.
The 26 of Februarie, in the morninge, we departed from
Zante.
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